Poster sessions were held during the conference and below is the list of posters that were accepted. Click on the title of a poster to jump to its abstract. Posters

Poster Listing

A Model of Location and Supplies Distribution in Humanitarian Relief

Bronfman (Universidad Andres Bello), Bronfman (Universidad Andres Bello), Raquel (Universidad Andres Bello), Pamela (Universidad Andres Bello)

We address the problem of last-mile distribution in humanitarian relief chain. We consider small populated areas that require relief supplies after a disaster. For these areas different scenarios were analyzed, including restrictions on access and mobility of persons affected, together with the right distribution system. We propose a Mixed Integer Programming Model that determines the location of supply stores, the target population from each store and the appropriated distribution system.


A Review of the Critical Challenges and Current Solutions for Water Distribution in Emergency Response

Kate Hughes (Heriot-Watt University), Karen Spens (Kanken School of Economics)

Water is a vital necessity for life. In disaster situations humanitarian responders are under pressure to provide clean water in challenging conditions. This paper will provide a review of currently available methods used to provide uncontaminated, potable water across a range of situations and assess their relative advantages and limitations relating to supply chain and services management. The aim is to classify the different solutions according to their viability of adaption and/or adoption to various disaster situations and phases of humanitarian response. This research consists of two parts. This stage is based on secondary data only, encompassing a literature review of both academic and business papers to identify and classify differing methodologies for the provision of water in disaster response. The second stage in the research will consist of interviews with disaster response managers from humanitarian organizations including non-government organisations (NGOs) and United Nations (UN) departments, to assess their opinion of the various solutions they have used in the field for providing water in disaster, emergency and humanitarian circumstances. This paper will provide the first assessment of water provision in disaster response relating to the categorisation of types of disasters i.e., sudden- and slow-onset, disperse and localised, natural and man-made disasters. The information gathered from this project will provide a comprehensive reference of viable alternative methods currently used for providing water in disaster and humanitarian situations including advantages and limitations. The output will be relevant to two groups: academics in supply chain and services management disciplines focusing on disaster management, and for humanitarian and emergency response practitioners from a range of organisations such as NGOs, UN Departments and military.


A Sketch Planning Model for Points of Distribution Location in Large Urban Disasters

Miguel Angel Jaller Martelo (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute), Jose Holguin-Veras (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute)

This poster shows an approximate mathematical formulation proposed as a sketch planning tool to estimate the number of points of distribution (PODs), their capacities, and the frequency of distribution strategy required for large urban disasters. The formulation is designed to require a minimum set of inputs so that it could be used to rapidly get an idea about a quasi-optimal configuration of the POD network. The quasi-optimal configuration is obtained as the one that minimizes the total social costs defined as the summation of the cost of: (i) locating the PODs, (ii) manning the servers at the PODs, (iii) transporting supplies to the PODs, (iv) walking to the PODs, (v) waiting times at the POD, and (vi) risk and inventory costs associated with the distribution strategy. The formulation takes into account the impacts on human suffering through the consideration of the costs of walking, waiting, and security risks. In addition, the poster shows the results from a number of numerical experiments that provide important insights for POD planning.


An Inventory Allocation Model for Post-Disaster Humanitarian Logistics with Explicit Consideration of Deprivation Costs

Noel Perez (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute), Jose Holguin-Veras (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute)

Although commercial and humanitarian logistics pursue the same general objective of delivering goods to points of demand, a fundamental difference is that commercial logistics aim to minimize operational costs, while the minimization of human suffering is the most important concern for humanitarian logistics. Based on concepts widely discussed by scholars in economics and the social sciences, this research considers the loss in welfare associated with beneficiaries not having access to critical commodities as a deprivation cost that should be valued and incorporated to the decision making process. Following this new approach to humanitarian logistics modeling, a heuristic is presented in which the inventory allocation and the vehicle routing decisions are decoupled and solved in independent steps. During the first stage, a nonlinear program is developed exploiting the optimality conditions associated with the inventory allocation. This program provides a delivery schedule (i.e., optimal shipment size and timing) for the second stage, which then reduces to a classic vehicle routing problem. Numerical experiments indicated the critical importance that delivery times and the resulting deprivation periods have in humanitarian logistics. It was observed that, in situations of extreme scarcity, the optimal delivery strategies seem to prioritize deprivation times over other key logistical measures, e.g. total cargo delivered. Thus, the systematic rationing of existing inventories could decrease long term deprivation costs and, consequently, the total social costs of disaster response. It was also observed that, as supplies reach demands, the inventory allocation problem reduces to the minimization of unmet demands or the maximization of delivery volumes. Thus, although these metrics have been proposed as general allocation rules for humanitarian logistics, the experiments in this research suggest that their use should be limited to situations in which the responder has enough resources to meet most demands from the disaster areas.


C4G BLIS - Improving Health Care in Africa

Amol Shintre (Georgia Institute of Technology), Santosh Vempala (Georgia Institute of Technology)

Most hospitals and laboratories in sub-Saharan Africa use paper logs and manual entries for tracking patients, specimens and results. These methods make it difficult for laboratories to efficiently track and manage data. Additionally, these methods are prone to clerical errors and the burden of maintaining these records takes us valuable staff time. C4G BLIS is a laboratory information system that works on limited resources and reduces the dependency of laboratory technicians on paper logs and manual entries without imposing a burden.

The main goal of C4G BLIS is to efficiently manage and maintain all patient, specimen and test data and results generated daily by the laboratories. C4G BLIS is also designed to facilitate sharing information among public health organizations by efficiently generating aggregate reports. The user perspective has always been at the center of the design and deployment of C4G BLIS; it seeks regular feedback from users and this feedback is processed and incorporated in the form of system updates so that the end result is a system that is highly user-friendly, keeps up with the evolving needs of the laboratories and is put to efficient use by the laboratories.

C4G BLIS was initially implemented on a trial basis in 3 laboratories in Cameroon by GHSS. After a few months of activity, a 6-month pilot phase was launched. The pilot phase results showed that C4G BLIS was highly successfully. On account of using C4G BLIS over other existing methods, the average workload reduction was 50% while the average error reduction was 66%. Additionally, the voluntary user ratings showed that C4G BLIS did not impose any burden on the users, who though not technically savvy found the system very easy to use. The goal is to expand the usage of C4G BLIS beyond the 12 hospitals which currently use it.



Surabhi Potnis (Georgia Institute of Technology), Santosh Vempala (Georgia Institute of Technology)

C4G V2V (Vein-to-Vein) is an application designed to help manage the everyday data needs of blood banks in various countries of Africa. This includes ability to store blood collection and distribution data, viewing history of donors, and generation of various types of reports. Making the interface as user friendly as possible was of primary importance to encourage adoption at all levels of users. Configuration of various features of the application was also a major requirement as every blood bank would have different standards and guidelines regarding the data they need to store and the type of reports they need to generate.
On the technical side, the application has been designed as a web application which can be packaged and deployed as a desktop application in blood banks which do not have sufficient Internet connectivity.
We hope that proper tracking of blood collection and test results will help in reducing the cases of blood transmitted diseases which are of great concern in many countries. Analysis of this data should also help in determining patterns in blood usage during times of high demand.


Coordination of International Humanitarian Relief Support After Van (Turkey) Earthquake

Dilsu Ozkapici (Ministry of Foreign Affairs), Alp Ertem (Cankaya University), Haluk Aygunes (Cankaya University)


Disaster Management: Decision Support System for Turkish Red Crescent

Nur Timurlenk (Bilkent University), Okan Dukkanci (Bilkent University), Ali ?rfan Mahmutogullari (Bilkent University), Hasim Ozlu (Bilkent University)

In this study, the aim is to develop a decision support system for repositioning the disaster management centers (DMC) of Turkish Red Crescent (TRC) and determining stock levels for each DMC. By evaluating Turkish data, we construct risk indices for each 953 districts and distances from 81 cities to all districts. In addition to theoretical results, we provide TRC with a user-friendly interface, which has the following features:

1) Optimum DMC locations: By using developed mathematical model including risk and distance studies, we integrate the optimum positioning results into the decision support system. The decision support tool, KADes, includes a module that allows users to see the optimum locations of determined number of DMC's.

2) Opening or closing a center: For the sustainability of the study, KADes aims to fulfill the future needs of TRC. It provides options to open a new center or close a current one if it is not active enough to serve disaster areas. Program users are able to choose where to open a new DMC or which one to close manually, besides KADes is also capable to locate the optimum DMC.

3) Disaster simulation: Using the former years’ disaster and population data, simulation model forecasts the number of disaster victims by certain mathematical calculations. In addition, TRC users can enter the number of victims manually for the analysis purposes.

4) Inventory studies: After analysis of the current system and outputs of mentioned studies, total inventory is distributed to disaster centers according to the risk index of each city.

Comparing to the number of disaster victims in the previous periods, it is proven that KADes provides very close expectations on real-life scenarios. With the features above, TRC can use KADes for tactical and operational level applications in accordance with their long-term strategies.


Facility Location Model in Humanitarian Relief

Bronfman (Universidad Andres Bello), Bronfman (Universidad Andres Bello), Pamela (Universidad Andres Bello), Raquel (Universidad Andres Bello)

We address the locating facilities problem for a humanitarian relief network in natural disasters response. We developed a Mixed Integer Programming Model that determines the number and locations of distribution centres in a relief network. The proposed model considers capacity constraints of distribution centers and the need to satisfy all those affected by the disaster. It illustrates how the proposed model works in a real problem, specifically in the central-southern area of Chile.


Human approaches and models for humanitarian response transportation planning

Erica Gralla (MIT)

Recent disasters have highlighted the importance of supply chain management in emergency response, and sparked interest in translating insights from commercial logistics models to the humanitarian context. However, human experts may be better suited than models to making decisions in the dynamic, information-poor, multi-objective context of humanitarian response. This research explores the strengths and weaknesses of human decision-making in humanitarian logistics, to identify ways to improve both models and human decision-making. First, I describe an ethnographic study designed to discover how humanitarian experts plan aid deliveries for emergency response. Based on observations of 10 teams of experienced logisticians responding to a simulated emergency, I used grounded theory and visual mapping methods to discover and describe their decision-making processes. Second, I describe a conjoint analysis study designed to understand how experts conceive the goals of humanitarian aid delivery. I used a survey to estimate the utility functions of humanitarian logisticians over five key attributes of aid delivery plans, quantifying the importance of each attribute. Together, these two studies provide the fundamental understanding needed to develop better methods and tools: a deeper understanding of human decision-making in emergency response enables us to leverage the strengths of both people and models to improve humanitarian aid delivery.


Improving HIV early infant diagnosis (EID) supply chains in sub-Saharan Africa

(London Business School), Sarang Deo (Indian School of Business), Gallien (London Business School)

An instrumental part of the battle against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in developing countries is early infant diagnosis (EID) aimed to identify HIV infected infants as early as possible. Timing is important as roughly 50% of infants infected early die before they reach the age of two years. In resource limited settings the EID system is a intricate network of clinics, where samples are taken, and labs, where samples are processed. Each lab in the system can be described as a (sum_i GI^[X_i])G^[b,b]c queue. In this paper an approximation of waiting time in such queues is derived as a univariate function of utilization. This approximation is utilized as a mechanism to translate operational decisions into public health outcomes when the problem of improving or designing an optimal operational structure for a general EID system is formulated. The operational aspects examined include the total capacity of system, location of labs, the assignment of clinics to labs, potential segmentation of samples into a normal track and a fast track and the allocation of transport opportunities between the clinics and the labs. Furthermore, a general simulation model is developed and validated using available data for a representative case. This model is used to quantify the effect of various inputs on health outcomes and as a robustness check for the improvements suggested by the optimization model.


Locating Temporary Shelter Areas After a Large-Scale Disaster

Firat Kilci (Bilkent University), Bahar Yetis Kara (Bilkent University), Burcin Bozkaya (Sabanci University)


Occurrence and Prevalence of ADR in Community Pharmacy: Causality Assessment of Suspected ADR with Antihypertension Treatment by Naranjo's Scale

Parimalakrishnan S (Annamalai University), N V R Praveen Kumar Tavva (Bharath College of Pharmacy), Guru Prasad Mohanta (Annamalai University), Prabal Kumar Manna (Annamalai University)


Optimisation of World Vision's Food Commodity, Cash and Non-Food-Item Distribution Setups

Martin Hiltbrunner (World Vision Switzerland), Jaime Castaneda (University of Lugano)

Humanitarian organizations face significant challenges when setting up and implementing aid distribution programs. This study is aimed at supporting World Vision colleagues at the point where aid workers physically hand over aid to beneficiaries.
World Vision started the Last-Mile-Mobile-Solution (LMMS) project following its commitment to remove the reliance on paper-based systems so that distribution of aid is made fairer and donor reporting increases in accuracy and speed. People can be registered directly in the field and immediately integrated into humanitarian assistance projects. With the swipe of a photo ID card, families receive the right amount of aid.

To assist the introduction of this innovative technology, I analysed the distribution setups for distributing cash and non-food-items in Haiti, to see whether there is room for improvement. I then used the data from this setting to anticipate obstacles that distribution could face if it were implemented in a large food aid distribution programme in South Darfur, Sudan.

For the study, I engaged field managers to get their opinion, and then I requested them to measure time durations of the service, verification, and distribution locations and gather data about the capacity of the queuing locations. Then, I simulated the different setups using ProModel. After having verified the scenarios and the data, I tested additional scenarios.

Results of the scenarios suggest that while the setups in Haiti offer limited room for improvement, LMMS brings additional flexibility to the distribution organisation in Sudan. However, results also suggest that its implementation needs to be closely monitored to prevent that the distributions take longer than the current paper-based policy.
Doubtless the introduction of LMMS brings much needed transparency and accountability to reporting. To select the right distribution option in Sudan is the next challenge that needs to be addressed.


Planning for the unpredictable

Kirstin Scholten (Dublin Institute of Technology), Pamela Scott (Dublin Institute of Technology), Brian Fynes (University College Dublin)

Supply chain management is a critical determinant for the delivery of goods and services across all types of businesses. Our study examines supply chains of organisations active in disaster management (e.g. humanitarian aid or energy providers) which present a unique context for identifying the essential capabilities required for effective and efficient operations in risky and demanding environments. Therefore, this research provides cross learning possibilities between humanitarian aid organisations and commercial businesses in addition to adding to strategy development in the not-for-profit sector in general and reduced disaster impact on society. Three key contributions will be addressed: firstly, an integrated framework is developed to show how service providers can differentiate and achieve sustained value creation by applying strategic entrepreneurship to their supply chain operations. Secondly, my study identifies the fundamental capabilities needed in different phases of a disaster. Results reveal exciting learning possibilities on how to effectively involve businesses, countries and communities in risk reduction measures. The third contribution to be highlighted is the identification of the criticality of knowledge management capabilities in all aspects and types of supply chains, whether it is a service provider or manufacturing company in the commercial, not-for-profit or public sector.


Purchasing in power assymtery - A study of vaccine procurement for developing countries

Ala Pazirandeh (Department of Industrial Management and Logistics- Eng. Logistics, Lund University)


Resource Allocation Model for the Dynamic Control of Material Convergence

Miguel Angel Jaller Martelo (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute), Jose Holguin-Veras (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute)


Supply Chain Management at Humanitarian Organizations - The Case of School Feeding

Andreas Kretschmer (WHU - Otto Beisheim School of Management), Stefan Spinler (WHU - Otto Beisheim School of Management), Luk Van Wassenhove (INSEAD)

School feeding is an established developmental intervention traditionally run by international organizations. Recently the focus shifted to develop sustainable local programs and supply chains. In this work we propose a theoretical framework that structures the main relationships of school feeding supply chains that are relevant to achieve program sustainability. Furthermore, case study research and system dynamics will be used to gain more insights on the proposed critial factors.


Supply Chains in Humanitarian, Business and Military Logistics

Thomas E. Fernandez (University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce)

The author looks at three types of organizations, namely Human Relief Organizations (HROs), businesses and military organizations. Furthermore, he looks at the three phases of the disaster situation, namely preparation phase, emergency relief phase and reconstruction phase, and analyzes which type of organsation is most suitable top provide logistics and supply chain services.

The result is that businesses are most suitable to provide warehousing and supply chain services in the preparation phase, because they conduct these services also for other customers and have warehouses at different location in the world. The exception is the World Food Program as an HRO, as due to their large mandate they have the same economy of scale that businesses have.

In the initial part of the emergency phase, military organizations are most suitable, as they have resources available. The exception are businesses with uninterrupted supply chains, as they are already on location.
After the initial part, HROs are most suitable, as their main aim is to alleviate suffering, but they may still outsource individual distribution services to the military, or to businesses.

Businesses are most suitable in the reconstruction phase.


Towards a Mutual Understanding - A Multidimensional Training Module

Lutz Nolde (Fuehrungsakademie der Bundeswehr)

In humanitarian emergencies there is a huge number of organisations acting in the field on different levels, including international military forces. NATO developed a new strategy for military medical support to the population in 2010, lines of operation like security sector reform and reconstruction and development bring more and more challenges to military medical services. In these cases the civilian health system becomes a focal point of interest. Not everything in this field is a military task, but not everything in this field is done or can be done by the local government or international or non-governmental organisations. Therefore the need for coordination and cooperation is given to finish the mission successfully.

The presented training concept has been created to enhance and professionalize cooperation and collaboration between military and non-military actors in the humanitarian arena with emphasis on medical affairs. It should create deeper understanding between involved parties, their backgrounds, skills and approaches. A layer model is used to create a mutual understanding of all actors step by step.

Starting with terminology and definitions, with focus on ethical issues and terms like humanity, impartiality and coordination, civilian and military principles, doctrines and policies are discussed and the different organisations different perspectives are introduced. Several approaches to humanitarian assistance are shown. Acting in a generic roleplay, the participants gain a mutual understanding of a common mission, but different responsibilities.


Understanding the Drivers and Barriers of Coordination Among Humanitarian Organizations

Mohammad Moshtari (Universita della Svizzera italiana), Paulo (University of Lugano, Switzerland)